By Rabbi Berach Steinfeld
We recently learned in Daf Yomi in Sandhedrin, daf nun vov, amud bais that we learn about all of the zayin mitzvos bnei Noach from a posuk in this week’s parsha. We read in Perek Bais, posuk tes vov that Hashem commanded Adam saying… These are the mitzvos bnei Noach. One of these mitzvos is the prohibition of “gezel,” stealing.
Rav Yochanan is quoted in the Gemara in Sanhedrin, daf nun tes, amud alef saying that if a Goy learns Torah, he is chayev misa. The posuk teaches us that “Torah tziva… morasha kehilas Yaakov.” Torah is an inheritance for the Jews, not for the Goyim. The Gemara asks, why is this issur of not learning Torah not listed as part of the zayin mitzvos? The answer is because it is included in the issur of gezeilah.
The following question then arises. How does learning Torah fall under the category of gezel? Normally, if I take something away from another person, it is gezel; but what is a Goy who learns Torah taking away from us?
The Hagahos Yaavetz answers that one who is osek in Torah usually uncovers some hidden meaning or comes up with a chiddush to add to what he is learning. If a Goy goes ahead and says the chiddush, it is like stealing from a Jew who could have come up with that chiddush himself. Not only that, but in addition, this chiddush may not be used by a Yid since it was given by a Goy. The problem of the Goy stealing our Torah is therefore clarified.
Another question may be asked in relation to this topic. Do we need to give a Goy mussar if he is oveir on the zayin mitzvos bnei Noach?
Rashi in Sanhedrin Ayin Heh, amud alef says that we have no chiyuv to give mussar since it says “amisecha.” One is required to give mussar only to a fellow Jew. The Divrei Shaul explains that the reason for the chiyuv to give mussar exists because we have a concept of “arvus” which does not apply to a Goy.
The Sefer Chassidim says that the fact that Hashem sent Yona to the city of Ninveh shows us that one could and should give mussar to a Non-Jew provided that it will be effective mussar. The Sefer Chassidim held the position that mussar is not a din in arvus, but rather an attempt to be mekadesh Shem Shomayim.
The following question may be posed to those who are of the opinion that Jews don’t need to give mussar to a Goy. Does a Goy have an obligation of giving mussar to a Goy?
There are many differing opinions. The Binyan Dovid says that a Goy is required to give mussar to another Goy, whereas the Kli Chemda says that a Goy does not need to give mussar to another Goy. This could be explained by viewing whether giving the mussar is due to the idea of arvus or to be mekadesh Shem Shomayim. If the reasoning is arvus, the Goy is not obligated. If the reasoning is to be mekadesh Shem Shomayim, then it could be the Goy is required to do so.