-Rav Shmuel ben Yoel ibn Shuiv, Rav in the Aragonese community of Salonica (1528). His father, who was born in Spain and moved to Salonica in 1495, authored Olas Shabbos, Nora Tehillos, and Ein Mishpat.
-Rav Mano’ach Hendel, author of Chochmas Mano’ach (1611)
-Rav Shlomo of Karlin (1740 or 1738-1792). A student of the Maggid of Mezritch, as well as of Rav Aharon the Great of Karlin, whom he succeeded in 1772, he died Kiddush HaShem, stabbed by a Cossack while in the midst of the Amida prayer.
-Rav Avraham Grodzenksi, mashgiach of Slabodka; died al kiddush Hashem, along with his sons, Yisrael, Zeev, and Eliezer, and his daughter, Miriam (1942). A collection of his thoughts are recorded in Toras Avraham. His last three years were spent in the Kovno Ghetto. An account of that period in his life was written by his daughter, Rebbetzin R. Wolbe, who became the wife if Rav Shlomo Wolbe, entitled “Ve’emunascha Baleilos.” On June 23, 1941 (27th of Sivan) German bombardment of Lithuania put a stop to the learning in Slobodka, as Kovno took the brunt of the attack.
-Rav Levi Yitzchak Bender (1897-1989). Born in Grodzisk (near Warsaw), he was sent to Yeshivas Mokov when he was ten, where he became drawn to Breslav Chassidus. The teachings of Rav Nachman (who died in 1810) were transmitted chiefly by his talmid, Rav Nasan Sternhartz, who transcribed the Rebbe’s teachings and conversations. After Rav Nasan’s passing in 1844, the torch of Breslav was carried on by a number of leaders, including Rav Nachman of Tulchin (died 1884) and Rav Nachman of Tcherin (died 1894). The fourth generation of leaders included Rav Yitzchak Breiter (died around 1943) and Rav Avraham Chazan (Rav Nachman of Tulchin’s son; died in 1917). Rav Levi Yitzchak, one of the fifth-generation leaders, was a talmid of Rav Avraham Chazan. The sixth generation leaders of our time include Rav Yaakov Meir Shechter (born 1931), one of the well-known gedolim of Eretz Yisrael. After his father-in-law’s passing, Rav Levi Yitzchak moved with his family to Uman, where he remained for twenty years until 1936. After five years in Moscow, Rav Levi Yitzchak, his wife and his daughter, moved to Tashkent in Uzbekistan, Central Asia. In 1945, the family moved to nearby Samerkand, known as the Yerushalayim of Uzbekistan, which had a much larger, loyal Jewish community. In 1949, Rav Levi Yitzchak arrived in Eretz Yisrael, where he helped build Breslav chassidism into the vibrant community of today, and helped establish the main Breslav beis medrash, near the border of the Meah Shearim district.
Today in History – 22 Tammuz
· In Pastoureaux (Southern France), a crusade against the Jews was started by a shepherd, which then spread throughout most of southern France and northern Spain, 1320..
· Marranos were permitted to leave Portugal, 1557.
· Jews of New Amsterdam requested permission to open a cemetery in 1655. Permission was initially denied and was finally granted a year later.
· Death of Shabbsi Ben Yosef, known as the father of the Hebrew bibliography, 1718. He was the author of the first bibliography of Hebrew books called Sifsei Yesheinim and ran a printing press in Breslau.