Yahrtzeits – 21 Tishrei
Rav Yaakov Yosef HaKohen of Polnayah, author of Toldos Yaakov Yosef (1710-1784). He was the foremost disciple of the Baal Shem Tov, and one of the earliest champions of chassidus. He was a descendant of Rav Shimshon of Ostropole, and Rav Yomtov Lipman Heller, the Tosefos Yomtov. While still a young man, Rav Yaakov Yosef was appointed as the rav of Sharigrod in Padalia, a former province of Poland, and it is there that he became an ardent disciple of the Baal Shem Tov. His first sefer, Toldos Yaakov Yosef, is the first Chassidic sefer ever published, and is a major source of the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov, repeating the phrase, “I have heard from my teacher,” 249 times, and quoting him about another 40 times. In addition to Toldos Yaakov Yosef, he authored Ben Poras Yosef, Tzofnas Paane’ach, and Kesones Passim.
Rav Menachem Mendel of Premishlan (1777). A disciple of the Baal Shem Tov as well as of the Maggid of Mezritch. He settled in Eretz Yisrael in 1768. The actual year of his death is unknown. However, it was probably before 1777, since a large contingency of Chassidim that arrived that year apparently found him no longer living. His yahrtzeits date, however, is well-established.
Rav Dovid Moshe Friedman, the first Chortkover Rebbe, the 5th son of Rav Yisrael of Ruzhin (1828-1903). He moved to Chortkov in 1865 to become Rav, a position he kept for over 40 years. He is the author of Divrei Dovid. Upon his death in 1904, his son Reb Yisrael succeeded him.
Rav Avraham Shmuel Binyamin Sofer, the Cheshev Sofer (1961)
Rav Yaakov Aryeh Twersky, the Trisker Rebbe (1979)
Yahrtzeits – 22 Tishrei
Rav Aharon Halevi Hurvitz of Stroshel, primary student of the Alter Rebbe of Lubavitch, author of Avodas Halevi and Shaar Hayichud (1828)
Rav Shraga Feivel of Gritza (1848)
Rav Moshe Shmuel Glasner (1857-1924). Rav Moshe, a great-grandson of the Chasam Sofer, was born in Pressburg and later moved with his family to Klausenberg, where his father served as Rav. Rav Moshe succeeded his father in that post in 1878 and filled it until 1923, when he settled in Yerushalayim. Rav Moshe’s best known work is Dor Revi’i on Meseches Chullin. His other works include responsa and a Torah commentary.
Rav Dovid Shapiro of Sonik-Dinov (1933).
Rav Moshe Yaakov Hakohen Revikov, tzadik nistar, the “sandlar (shoemaker) of Tel Aviv” (1966)
Nadvorna Rebbe of Petach Tikva (2002)
Yahrtzeits, Friday, 23 Tishrei (Simchas Torah in Chutz La’aretz)
Rav Dovid Jungreis, Rosh Av Beis din Yerushalayim (1898-1971). Rav Dovid’s grandfather was Rav Moshe HaLevi Jungreis, a student of the Ksav Sofer and the av beis din of Kashoi, while his father was Rav Baruch Reuven Shlomoh, the founder of the Eidah HaChareidis. He had married Rebbetzin Miriam Pu’ah, a daughter of Rav Asher Zussman. In 1931, at the age of 33, he was appointed dayanin the Eidah HaChareidis’ beis din, joing Rav Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld. His knowledge was so vast, the Satmar Rav once said, “If Rav Dovid is here, I don’t need any sefer.” Although he was
childless, Rav Dovid’s insightful drashos, which were compiled by his students into a sefer, entitled Or Dovid
Rabbeinu Chanoch ben Rabbeinu Moshe of Cordova, one of the four Shevuyim
Rav Menachem Mendel of Linsk, father of Rav Naftali Tzvi of Ropshitz (1802).
Yahrtzeits, Shabbos, 24 Tishrei (Parshas Bereishis)
Rav Eliyahu Guttmacher, Av Beis din Greiditz (1796-1874). Born near Posen (Poznan) in eastern Germany (today, Poland) he became, at age 19, a student of R’ Akiva Eiger for four years. R’ Guttmacher published several pamphlets describing his ideas about the Redemption and the return to Eretz Yisrael. He also left behind many manuscripts on “traditional” Torah subjects, and some of his commentaries are published in the back of the standard Vilna edition of the Talmud.
Rav Yaakov Yosef of Polnoye (1669-1781), author of Toldos Yaakov Yosef, first printed book of Chassidus, talmid of the Baal Shem Tov. While still a young man, Yaakov Yosef was appointed Rav of Sharogrod. After meeting with with the Baal Shem Tov and becoming an early adherent of his, he was asked to leave his post. He served as Rav of Rashkov and of Nemirov, and then in 1770 he became the Rav of Polnoye. He also authored Ben Poras Yosef, Tzofnas Paane’ach, and Kesones Passim. Althought he exact year of his birth is not known, it is believed that
he lived more than 110 years.
Rav Elchonon Sorotzkin, Chairman of Vaad Hayeshivos; son of Rav Zalman Sorotzkin (author of Oznayim Le-Torah).
Rav Avraham Yehuda Leib Hacohen Schwartz, the Kol Aryeh
Rav Chaim Zanvil Abramowitz, the Ribnitzer Rebbe, Monsey (1995); attended Kishinev Yeshiva in the 1920s and sat at the court of Rav Avraham Mattisyahu of Sthefanesht in Romania. After emigrating from Russia in 1973, he lived in Yerushalayim and Monsey, NY. It is known that from the 1930s until the end of his life he fasted on all days when it is permitted to do so under Jewish law.
Rav Chaim Shaul Kaufman, Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Tiferes Yaakov of Gateshead (1938-2005). Born in Berlin as the youngest of 8 children, he came to Gateshead in July 1939. He married Leah Nagel of Antwerp.
· Shlomo Hamelech finishes the dedication ceremonies of the Bais Hamikdosh, 932 B.C.E.
· Haggai delivers prophesy to encourage Zerubavel and Yehoshua Kohen Gadol to build the Second Bais Hamikdosh, 351 B.C.E.
· 3,400 Jews of Galicia executed by Nazis, 1941.
· 10 major Nazis were hanged after Nuremberg trials, 1946. Among them was Ernst Kaltenbrunner, an S.S. leader who was a friend of Adolf Eichmann and collaborated in the development of the death camps. As the end of World War II approached, he insisted on continuing the annihilation of the Jews until the last possible moment.
· Arab oil producing states announce 10 percent reduction in oil production and impose total embargo on U.S. and Netherlands, 1973.
· Bar Giora, a Palestinian Jewish self-defense organization was formed to protect the settlements from raiders, 1907. Two years later it was reorganized into Hashomer (the watchman) and finally became the Hagana, Israel’s pre-State defense forces.
Today in History – 22 Tishrei
· Jews of Rome prohibited by Urban VIII (1623-44) to erect matzeivos, 1625.
· Death of Dr. Marcus Jastrow (1829-1904). Born in Rogasen, Posen, Marcus Jastrow was thirty-seven-years-old when he was called to Philadelphia’s Congregation Rodeph Shalom, where he served as senior rabbi until his retirement in 1892. “A Dictionary of the Targumim, Talmud Babli, Talmud Yerushalmi and Midrashic Literature” evolved into, and was published as, a two-volume work in 1903.
Today in History – 23 Tishrei
· Hundreds of Jews in Cracow killed during hakafos 1555.
· Palestinian terrorists hijack Italian cruise ship, the Achille Lauro, and murder American Jew Leon Klinghoffer, 1985.
· A bomb placed outside of a shul on the Rue Copernic in Paris explodes killing 3 people, 1980. The terrorists are never apprehended, nor is it ever determined whether the perpetrators belonged to a Palestinian movement or the radical French right.
· Members of the dissolved Lebanese parliament ratify the Taif Agreement. Although the agreement calls for the “disbanding of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias,” Hezbollah remains active, 1988
Today in History – 24 Tishrei
· The Jews under Nechemia cried out to Hashem and made a new covenant with Him, 357 B.C.E.. They also asked that the yetzer hora of avoda zora be given into their hands (Yoma 69b)
· Eighth and last Crusade led by Louis IX of France, 1270. It was diverted to Tunisia where Louis IX died, and after that the west lost interest in supporting the Crusades against the Muslims. When Acco fell to the Mamelukes in 1291, the Crusader kingdom came to its final end after close to 3 centuries.
· Germany decreed that passports of Jews were to be marked with a J, 1939.