The army said it targeted two Hamas military posts in northern and central Gaza. There were no immediate reports of Palestinian casualties.
The IDF noted that it holds Hamas rulers responsible for any attacks emanating from the Strip.
The rocket prompted air-raid sirens in multiple communities in the Sha’ar Hanegev Regional Council, the IDF said. Residents of Sha’ar HaNegev, a group of communities bordering the Gaza Strip, said they heard a loud explosion, but no injuries or damage were reported.
The military said the rocket landed in an open area.
Israel regularly carries out limited air strikes on Hamas targets in response to sporadic rocket-fire, though it is believed that the rockets are fired by fringe groups inside Gaza, rather than by Hamas.
The latest attack came as Hamas demanded the release of prisoners held in Israeli jails in exchange for information on the fate of two IDF soldiers declared killed in action during last summer’s Gaza war.